Introduction

Racism has been a subject of discussion for several centuries. The course of racial and ethnic politics has mainly depended on the political dynamics in the African-American community and the relationship between African-Americans and other racial groups in the country. However, according to Cassidy (2020), there is an increase in racial discrimination in the U.S. over the last five years compared to any other political period. According to the article in New Yorker, Donald Trump has been aggregated racial discrimination. The president has not taken racial discrimination charges with the seriousness it requires. According to Cassidy (2020), during the racial justice in Washington, the Pentagon chiefs refused to send federal troops as instructed by Trump. Racial discrimination and police brutality were featured in mid-ar 2020 when George Floyd was killed by police (BBC, 2020).

Hypothesis

Does racial discrimination a significant problem in the country?

Does race and ethnicity in the U.S. affect its ability to go ahead in the country?

Literature Background

Clair, Denis, & Olivier (2019) defined race as a social construct that differentiates people based on phenotypes such as skin color, hair texture, or eye color. On the other hand, racial discrimination is the unequal treatment of people based on racial group or type. Racism has not disappeared in America. Supratman & Wahyudin (2019) acknowledged the history of racism during the slavery period and currently. The author portrayed the existence of racial discrimination through police. In April 2015, Freddie Gray was arrested for staring at a police officer. The victim was also brutally bitten by six officers and suffered significant injuries. According to Supratman & Wahyudin (2019), racism arises when there is an imbalance in reliance between two people of different races.

The George Floyd case in June brought a mixed reaction about violence and racist policing happening in America. In a democratically developed country like America, racism has been high, the police portraying the broad daylight situation. Until June, many Americans did not understand how racist and violent policing the country had become (Schwartz, 2020). Black Americans have continued to suffer from marginalization throughout history. According to Worshingtonpost (2020), blacks are disadvantaged in terms of resource allocation. This forms the foundation of this research. The data aimed at finding how people viewed ethnicity and different races.

Methodology

The research used a quantitative method. Questionnaires were developed and published on the internet for distribution. The data was collected from primary sources through an online poll generated through a questionnaire. The survey was conducted on both genders and an age bracket of between 18 to 60 years. The full sample consisted of 6639 samples (n= 6639), comprising black Americans, Hispanic and non-Hispanic adults. Black and white were first identified in the questionnaire asked individuals about their race. The questionnaire allowed respondents to answer open-ended questions. All racial questions were based on the respondent’s self-identification.

Data was collected and coded in Microsoft Excel for further analysis. Microsoft Excel provided a powerful tool to analyzed and tabulate the results for easy understanding. Statistical calculations, such as descriptive analysis, were conducted. Further analysis included ANOVA and linear regression models to test the hypothesis. The significance level was set at 95%. The dependent variable was set the race, while dependent variables were respondents’ feelings about the state of racism in the country.

Results

Descriptive analysis

Descriptive analysis was used to establish the majority race in the population. Table 1 below represents the descriptive analysis results obtained. The mean of data shows 2.46 indicating that majority of the population were whites. One Hispanic adult two represented black Africans and three black Americans.

  Race
Mean 2.459997
Standard Error 0.06102
Median 3
Mode 3
Standard Deviation 4.971204
Sample Variance 24.71287
Kurtosis 361.686
Skewness 18.76048
Range 98
Minimum 1
Maximum 99
Sum 16327
Count 6637

 

Table 1: Descriptive Analysis

Does racial discrimination a significant problem in the country?

According to Scott (2020), most Americans believe that racial discrimination is a significant problem in the United States. However, this study showed different results. The regression analysis showed that the null hypothesis should be rejected. The p-value obtained from the analysis was 0.316 (>0.05), indicating that the null hypothesis should be accepted. Additionally, the R Square of  0.018 indicates that the two variables were not closely related. The result indicates that people did not view racial discrimination as a significant problem in the country.

 

  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value
Intercept 1.912875 0.350862 5.451931 0.0000
X Variable 1 0.152953 0.15143 1.010052 0.3169

Table 2: Regression analysis

Does race and ethnicity in the U.S. affect its ability to go ahead in the country?

The regression analysis showed that the null hypothesis should be rejected. The p-value obtained from the analysis was 0.99, indicating that the null hypothesis should be accepted. Additionally, the R Square of  0.000 indicates that the two variables were not closely related. The result in table 3 shows that there was no relationship between racial discrimination and country growth. Respondents did not take it as a factor that would influence country growth.

  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value
Intercept 2.594385286 0.263174 9.858049 9.29E-14
X Variable 1 0.000968054 0.113585 0.008523 0.993231

 

Table 3: Regression analysis between racial discrimination and country growth.