Chapter 2 of Book 1 contains relevant material you can use to develop an answer to address what is asked. You can first offer an introduction to pinpoint the focus of your paper, the importance of the topic to be examined, and how you are going to structure your answer. You can next highlight the key tenets/propositions/features of each of the behavioural theory, social learning theory and Piaget’s theory to development and then contrast these views on different dimensions to examine whether they are complementary. In covering behavioural theory, you will need to (a) state the focuses of the theory {
(i) observable and measurable events and behaviour and why such a focus,
(ii) the focus on how the environment affects behaviour, and
(iii) meaning of learning}; (b) point out that behaviour is learned through classical and operant conditioning; (c) describe the process of classical conditioning along with an illustrative example; and then (d) describe the process of operant conditioning, including the kind of behaviour involved, and key processes such as operant conditioning, reinforcement, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, positive punishment, time-out and response cost, along with examples for illustration, where appropriate. You will also need to pinpoint, with reason, for what purpose punishment can be used. In covering social learning theory, you will need to
(a) point out the role of observing others in learning, factors involved in learning through observing, and the role of having observed others who have been reinforced or punished;
(b) highlight an empirical study to illustrate the effects of observing others on learning; and
(c) outline applications of observation in real-life settings.
In covering Piaget’s theory, you will need to
(a) point out Piaget’s key interest and his notion of the active role of children in developing knowledge;
(b) highlight the structure of cognition and processes underlying development (i.e., schema, assimilation and accommodation along with an example for illustration, and how these underpin children as active learners);
(c) outline the stages of development in terms of the key features of each stage, and the implications of the notion of stages; and
(d) outline the kind of tasks Piaget used to examine children in the pre-operational stage and children in the concrete operational stage with regard to the ability to conserve.
To address the second part of the question, the theories are complementary if each covers facets of development which are not covered by the other theories, and so using the theories together would give me a fuller picture of development. One way to address this part is to contrast those views on relevant dimensions such as
(a) focus of study;
(b) the importance of the environment in affecting development;
(c) impact of observing other people;
(d) impact of interacting with peers; and
(e) children being active/passive in constructing their learning.
Where the theories stand on dimensions (b) to (e) are indicated on p. 78 of Book 1 but you will need to supply the reasons for where they stand on those notions/dimensions. You can then pinpoint the differences among the theories on those five dimensions. Based on the differences identified, you can then assess if those views focus on different aspects of development and are therefore complementary, or focus on the same aspects but offer different answers and therefore are competing conceptions of development. Instead of the dimensions indicated above, you can contrast the theories on other dimensions. However, you will need to contrast the theories on at least five dimensions. As this part of the question serves mainly to give you an opportunity to think more deeply about the theories, grading of this part of the answer will be on how well you have reasoned regarding where the theories stand on the dimensions adopted and how clearly you have pinpointed their differences.

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