1. Mart Wortley’s ‘Plain Account of Inoculating against Small Pox by a Turkey Merchant.’
Wortley Montagu was a well-known lady in the society for her literature valued letters. The English world traveler lady also participated in the introduced practice of inoculating against a disease known as smallpox in the eighteenth century. For an extended period, smallpox was a feared and killing disease. This is because for every three individuals who had smallpox, one of them died of the condition, and those who did not die were left in a disfigured condition. Mary Wortley Montagu participated in the discovery of Ottoman Empire variolation concept of fighting the disease condition in Istanbul during the period of 1716-171. After her discovery, she took the idea to help in reducing disease incidences in Britain. The disease diagnosis results verified that it was caused by the variola virus, which entered through the lungs into the bloodstream, which therefore transported the disease condition into internal organs causing infection. The main infection sign s and symptoms were observed on the skin, causing rashes. Accompanied disease conditions included headache, fever, and backache, which were followed by the appearance of rashes in three days of infection.
Importance of Mary Wortley Montagu’s letter Plain Account of Inoculating against Smallpox by a Turkey Merchant letter;
Mary Montagu considered her letter about smallpox inoculation important due to the success she attained in solving the problem of smallpox, which had become a disaster in society by killing many people. When she lived in the Ottoman Empire, she came up with the act of inoculation against smallpox, which was referred to as variolation (Halsband 1993). This innovation was introduced before Jenner’s cowpox vaccination, which came later. Some of the situations that pushed Mary Wortley Montagu to work on solving the disease condition included the fact that her brother who was very close to she had recently died of smallpox and Mary also was infected by the disease. This made her work very hard to safeguard her children from suffering the same condition. She, therefore, inoculated her children against the disease (Barnes 2012). On Montagu’s return to London, she introduced the procedure about smallpox inoculation as a way of reducing the mortality rate of depressed body conditions of the disease, but the idea was highly resisted by the medical organization since the process was oriental and also because of her gender.
Mary was convinced about the effectiveness of variolation as a way of preventing smallpox, and therefore, she requested people to uphold the method. Her efforts took root and started to spread to different regions. For instance, Wales princess including and some recognized people from the ruling family received the information where Charles Maitland received a license grant in performing variolation trial on some prisoners at Newgate in the year 1721 (Behbehani 1983). The prisoners were promised a full execution from the prison if they accepted to participate in the inoculation test against smallpox. The results showed that all the six prisoners who underwent the test survived and were therefore released from prison as the agreement stated. The prisoners were also exposed to a group of children who were already infected with smallpox and the results showed that they were immune. The procedure became successful and people were therefore recommended to accept the inoculation, where finally besides rejection and resistance of Wortley Montagu’s variolation procedure, it was accepted after the assessment of its success.
Mary Wortley Montagu derived the idea of variolation inoculation procedure of smallpox from the previously used technique known as engrafting used by Turkish women in protecting smallpox infection to their children. The method involved obtaining pus from a person’s infected blister with a mild disease condition and then using needles to inject the pus into their children’s body. This procedure resulted in disease infection to the injected person who was not severe and resistance was created since smallpox could not infect such people making the procedure a survival technique. Mary got interested in the system of protection and had her son immunized using this technique.
After Montagu observed the success and performance of variolation technique, she began holding campaigns as a way of promoting this protection method against smallpox infection. She made the inoculations public proving it through the health of her inoculated children. Some people started to join the program, including aristocracy members who were interested and influenced by the new protection procedure to the extent that they had their children inoculated. Mary also obtained great and powerful support from Caroline who was the Wales princess after she proved the effectiveness of the procedure after success was observed in the inoculated test experiments in the prisoners (Stone & Stone 2002). Variolation was as well done as a test experiment with a great success a factor that promoted the legal acceptance and authorization as a way of protecting smallpox infection through inoculation that promoted the immunity of an individual thereby rendering them tolerant to the disease.
Mary Wortley Montagu letter about smallpox inoculation is significance because it accompanied many advantages to many people. The ideas in this letter helped in reducing the rate of fatality rate, which resulted from smallpox infection that was common. Mary’s campaign of promoting variolation practiced had been identified to bear fruits to the entire members who practiced it. It had a great impact on the promotion of immunity and thereby preventing severe infections that lead to death. The success of Mary’s inoculation is observed to be a success after the prisoner’s test that rendered them immune and as well ensured the achievement of Mary’s goal. The final legal acceptance of Mary Wortley Montagu inoculation program ensured a great significance to her discovery by saving many lives in a society where death had developed to higher levels before the survival technique which was referred to as an engrafting method of smallpox infection protection. As the essay explains, a solution is finally attained after a longer period of suffering and death as a result of infection by smallpox virus which was after that spread by Mary Wortley through her campaigns and tests.
1. Jonathan Swift view of the Irish he was writing in “A Modest Proposal.”
Jonathans Swift’s essay was written to seek recognition of challenges experienced by people who lived in Ireland. His aimed to enable the English, who was the ruler of Ireland to understand what they were going through and set, reforms that work act to give a solution to the problems they had participated in causing. The main objective of his writing the modest proposal was to prevent children from poor backgrounds from being a Country’s burden or a bother to their parents and by this transformation ensuring they become an advantage to the public. Jonathan called attention and proposed some ideas concerning a plan to help the poor in Ireland.
A Modest Proposal;
Ireland had been a struggling Country since it was under the rule of England for about 500 years, thereby compromising the social and economic conditions as a result directly from the rule. They were restricted from trade, thereby greatly impacting a negative result to their economy. The increased unemployment levels increased hunger since people did not have the means to satisfy their basic needs such as food hence increasing the levels of poverty (Wittkowsky 1943). The number of beggars in the street sight rapidly increased. Overpopulation caused overcrowding, which resulted in poor living standards and conditions, creating little chances of hope for improvement.
Jonathan was one of the writers who was born and lived in Dublin and he took part in the ruling class in the year 1700s and highly involved in political issues in Ireland. His greatest part of the research was on determining how unfair English politics affected the lives of Irish people. On assessing that the politics did not favor people living there, but instead they were oppressed, he made some appeals to the parliament of Irish to set policies that would help in solving some problems in the Country, but no positive feedback ever came in return. In the A Modest Proposal, Swift began by describing the conditions of people in the states of Ireland population in detailed description convincing the leader to believe that he had a strategized solution to the problems in mind (Mahony 1998). Swifts kept on insisting about the provision of solutions to the many problems that made his people suffer and struggle a lot in trying to meet their basic needs by calling out the landowners whose unjust practices contributed to the suffering of Ireland people.
The purpose and view of Swift’s proposal were trying to change and reform the way Irish people were treated by English people under the rule. His main target was associated with eliminating the inhumanity that existed against people in Ireland through unfair treatments employed on them as if they were inhuman. Jonathan, who tried to take his position of being a pamphlet that was used in spreading ideas in Ireland was assumed, and his grievances declined by the English rule; As a way of giving solutions to the encountered challenges and trying to lift the economic position of Ireland, Jonathan Swift proposed an idea that the babies from the poor would be used to contribute the feeding and part of clothing to improve the living standards and economy (Wittkowsky 1943). He came up with this idea because women went on having children that they could even not manage to provide food.
Jonathan went on generating more ideas about solving the case of poverty in Ireland a proposal that suggested taking beggars female sex children and use a source of food like cattle. He moves to the details of breeding and rearing livestock. Swift speaks out against the political and economic crisis and the issues of poverty trying to come up with solutions. His struggle to feed the miserable poverty fate and large numbers of emaciating families also bear no fruits. He now advocated that the poor Irish people should give their babies what is also referred to as selling babies of the poor to the rich ladies and men to obtain monetary power from them which was required to reduce their economic requirements.
In the year 1729, Swift, with his work of ‘A Modest Proposal’ proposed another solution to cope challenge about starvation from the poor by infant consumptions in Ireland (Lein 1975). The idea was rejected by the members of Ireland as the narrator projects that the act would cause the inhabitants to love their Country rather than acting no longer like people killing each other when the city they lived in was taken. This solution seemed like a way to devour oneself rather than a way of escaping from poverty. The devouring of infants would also impact an economic step-down and as well result to a rise in the level of criminal activity.
As identified and described in the essay, Jonathan Swift demonstrated tactics in trying to solve the social, economic and political problems observed in the Irish population as well as looking for ideas that helped in transforming the poor kids of Ireland into useful community members. Some weird decisions made by Jonathan Swift had been recorded in the essay but although they seem odd, they mean to make readers understand and realize his efforts to achieve the well-being of children and also wanted to allow them to take part as true contributors of Ireland commonwealth. The author of the story in his proposal ‘A Modest Proposal’ has been identified to spread ideas through his grievance essay to help attain solutions to his Country people as well as reduce their struggle by attempting various ideas and tactics of raising the economic level which contributed to the raising of living standards. Some disagreements and ignorance were seen when proposals by Jonathan who was a political representative to the oppressed people of Ireland by the English rule were rejected, and no implementations were done as a solution to grievances outlined in the proposal. A whole society of many suffering and oppressed members is left to suffer by the English rule by offering them limited choices of survival.
1. What ‘A Father’s Legacy to his Daughters story’ tell us about that period it was written;
The book ‘A Father’s Legacy to His Daughters was produced and printed by a Scottish physician who was also a moralist and a medical writer called John Gregory. The message published in the book advises to parents and especially to women who took part in religion, friendship, moral characters, conduction and the preferred interactions to men on overall regard to marriage practice. John wrote the story after his wife died in the year 1761 in honor of her memory by recording her lesson on female education. The intention was to give the text after he died to his daughter. His son by the name James published the book in 1774 which was later translated to various editions and versions. In his text, it states how women refrained from disclosing their learning since they might end up losing their capacity to attract a husband. Some of the main areas that he emphasized in the story concerning those days life included friendship, marriage, love, religion, conduct, and behavior.
The duties of religion are equal on both male and female, but some distinctions about the natural character and learning lead to some differences between both sexes. There were some situations that require religion support to enable people to participate in them under spirit control. Religion has the power of changing the common and existing nature of a person by ensuring that they can bear with the prevailing sorrows in silence and still put a cheerful face in some situations that do not require cheerfulness such as when the hurt is torn (Gregory 1832). The bearing of domestic misfortune is bearable through religion consolation. Religion is as well a range of pleasure that enables people to draw more joy and happiness even from amusement situations.
Conduct and Behavior;
Gregory explains that conduct and behavior account the parameters that build an individual if the two aspects are not positively adhered to, and then the overall character of an individual is ruined. He says, “When a girl ceases to blush, she has lost the most powerful charm of beauty.” (Gregory 1793, p.25) People with real and desirable behavior and conduct is far superior to mindfulness unlike the one with seldom who falls on the way, and if it accidentally happens that he comes across, readiness to show full anxious and knowledge should be the solution.
Every life period consists of amusements, which are usually natural. People may involve themselves in various tastes about these, but every individual has to keep in bond whatever that is appropriate. Some kinds of amusements are favorable to health like the various exercise; some are linked to useful qualities which are useful such as the different kinds of work performed by women as well as all domestic family concerns (Chapone & Gregory 1808). Some of them are considered as accomplishments as music, dancing, and artwork. Some other amusements such as book reading that help in the understanding and knowledge enlargements that even cultivated the taste are considered to be even more than mere amusements.
Friendship, love, and marriage;
The three concepts of love, friendship, and marriage create the luxury of life. Having a steady friendship and a happy choice of friends’ impacts positive feedback to you since good friends are always ready to share their thoughts and give advice that are worth guidance. The choice of friends goes with the principle regards about the goodness of heart as well as fidelity (Gregory 1832). Marriage is associated with companions who should be agreeable and useful for it to qualify to be called successful. Confidence is built to those people who affection in one’s life.
Besides the four major topics from Gregory’s story, he also talks about other life concepts to his daughters such as chastity, his emphasis on the state of not engaging into sexual intercourse with anyone and being morally pure. He also explains about being in a company which dictates friendship status; this is because of company help in decision making as well as sharing of ideas that take part in the day to day life. Other principles of life described include contentment, gratitude, honesty, charity, poverty, pride, riches, among other life lessons and advice to his daughters and other parents. As Gregory explains the principles in his books, he related them on the life experienced and lessons that were learned from them as a way of generating sound advice to his target group. He wrote the book under the influence that “The anxiety I have for your happiness has made me resolve to throw together my sentiments relating to your future conduct in life.” He also says that if he dies sooner, he daughter will have no option apart from learning the advice of conduct from the book but if he lives longer, they will have an advantage of learning by listening to his words of mouth (Chapone et al., 1827). He hopes they will remember their father’s lessons in his remembrance and adhere to the advice to the best they can to live in peace and happiness.
John Gregory’s and his work ‘A Father’s Legacy to His Daughters is a book that was published with a set of principles that were intended to advise parents. The author wrote this book in the target of her daughters and needed the information to get to them after his death. Some of the moral principles and guidelines listed in the publication include religion, where he explains the facts about religion basing more on its significance. He also talks about friendship, love, and marriage considering this as the key life aspects saying that when a wrong choice is made, a dull life is lived but a right choice lifts the happiness in life. Conduct and behavior is another major area of advice described in the book, saying that characters build behavior and personal conduct. Other life principles which were dedicated to parents as an advice source touched on many other characters such as honesty, gratitude, chastity, poverty, riches, pleasure among other life principles.
Stone, A.F.M. and Stone, W.D., 2002. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: medical and religious controversy following her introduction of smallpox inoculation. Journal of medical biography, 10(4), pp.232-236.
Halsband, R., 1953. New light on Lady Mary Wortley Montagu’s contribution to inoculation. Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences, pp.390-405.
Behbehani, A.M., 1983. The smallpox story: life and death of an old disease. Microbiological reviews, 47(4), p.455.
Barnes, D., 2012. The public life of a woman of wit and quality: Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and the vogue for smallpox inoculation. Feminist Studies, 38(2), pp.330-362.
Wittkowsky, G., 1943. Swift’s modest proposal: The biography of an early Georgian pamphlet. Journal of the History of Ideas, 4(1), pp.75-104.
Mahony, R., 1998. The Irish Colonial Experience and Swift’s Rhetorics of Perception in the 1720s. Eighteenth-Century Life, 22(1), pp.63-75.
Lein, C.D., 1975. Jonathan Swift and the population of Ireland. Eighteenth-Century Studies, 8(4), pp.431-453.
Gregory, J. and Pennington, L.S., 1832. A Father’s Legacy to his Daughters. Leonard C. Bowles.
Chapone, M. and Gregory, J., 1808. Letters on the Improvement of the Mind Addressed to a Lady and a Father’s Legacy to His Daughters. Brettell and Company.
Gregory, J., 1793. A Father’s Legacy to His Daughters: By the Late Dr. Gregory, of Edinburgh. A. Millar, W. Law, and R. Cater; and for Wilson, Spence, and Mawman, York.
Chapone, M., Gregory, J. and Pennington, L.S., 1827. Letters on the improvement of the mind: addressed to a lady, by Mrs. Chapone. A father’s legacy to his daughters, by Dr. Gregory. A mother’s advice to her absent daughters, with an additional letter, on the management and education of infant children, by Lady Pennington. Printed by Samuel Marks.