Civil wars and terrorism often have international aspects. Afghanistan has had continuous fighting since at least 1979, and it has experienced interventions by two superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States. Terrorism is often inherently an international project—as when Osama bin Laden went from Saudi Arabia to Afghanistan before launching attacks on New York and Washington. In a compact and coherent essay, please discuss the international aspects of such violence involving “nonstate actors.” Is it true that such international aspects make conflicts less predictable and therefore oen more prolonged?