Part 1: Research discrimination and tokenism in the workplace. Then, write an essay that explains those terms and how they may apply in the workplace. Support your response with examples of how various forms of discrimination can impact organizations. Your essay should be two pages in length.

Part 2: Read the case titled, “Ethical Dilemma Voiding the ‘License to Discriminate’” on page 68 of the course textbook. Then, write responses that address the questions (2–12, 2–13, and 2–14) found below the case. Use examples to support each of your answers. At least one of your responses to the questions should be supported by a peer-reviewed journal article from the CSU Online Library. Use an article that has been published within the past five years that focuses on tokenism and/or discrimination. Your responses to Part 2 should be a total of two pages in length.

Submit the two parts into the same document for submission. The total length of this essay should be four pages, not counting the title page and reference page. Headings should be used to clearly identify each question or topic area. Use APA format for this assignment.

Ethical Dilemma Voiding the “License to Discriminate”
On April 15, 1947, Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play for the Brooklyn Dodgers, a Major League Baseball (MLB) team. Robinson was an excellent all-around player and eventually was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame; but as the first black person on an MLB team, Robinson had to navigate the challenges of being permitted to join the white-dominated league and faced barriers toward “full participation” due to his race.

In the workplace, tokenism refers to minority members being hired into a position because they are different from other members and sometimes to serve as proof that the organization or group is nondiscriminatory. Once in their positions, tokens are given work that would be stereotypically suitable for their demographic. For example, women may be given stereotypically female tasks instead of other tasks that they would be perfectly capable of performing. By engaging in tokenism, organizations may fall prey to a moral licensing effect, where employers are more likely to engage in prejudicial or unethical behavior when they have initially behaved in a morally acceptable way (such as in believing that selecting or including one minority member is “proof” that the group is nondiscriminatory).

2-12. Can you think of other examples in which tokenism might emerge in the workplace? What are they?

2-13. Organizations use a variety of diversity management strategies to make employees more aware of and sensitive to the needs of others. Do you think that these same practices may inadvertently (or intentionally) lead to tokenism or moral licensing? Why or why not?

2-14. What do you think can be done to limit tokenism in workgroups and organizations?
Part one
Discrimination and tokenism
Recent studies conducted to examine the evolution of human behaviour have observed that prejudice is part of human nature. A study by the Arizona State University noted that by nature- human beings are “group living” creatures. Meaning humans belonging to similar communities or groups will have a “tribal psychology” where each member of the group is likely to have positive tendencies or attitude towards individuals’ members of the community. Such researches were conducted in order to examine why human being demonstrates prejudice and discrimination towards other people in similar surroundings. Ideally, human capital forms an essential component of an organization. For an organization to be successful every employee is required to work or relate with their colleagues irrespective of individualistic background. The difference in the belief system, religion, and cultural settings play an important role in creating a culture of discrimination and tokenism.

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