• Type your answers directly on this exam. Make sure you do not change the format nor number system.
  • Save your exam as Last Name First Initial, 3100 – your section (e.g., StronginD 3100-001). Save your exam as a word document and send to
  • On multiple choice questions, highlight the correct answer instead of typing the correct letter.
  • Short answers require a word or sentence or two.
  • Short essays require a detailed paragraph (or so).
  • Refer to the Supplemental Sheet for assigned questions (listed below).
  • Use a different color font
  1. (1) The vast majority of neurons are located in the  ____. [Highlight the correct answer]
    1. Outer bulges of the neocortex
    1. Cerebellum and brainstem
    1. Autonomic Nervous System
    1. Creases in the neocortex
  • (3) [short answer] What are the advantages of all those convolutions (wrinkles) in our neocortex?

à Refer to the Supplemental Sheet for questions 3 through 11, all short answers.

  • (1) What is the anatomical direction of #3? Put in the space below
  • (1) What is the anatomical direction of #4? Put in the space below
  • (1) What is the anatomical direction of #5? Put in the space below
  • (1) What is the anatomical direction of #6? Put in the space below
  • (3) What is the name of the anatomical direction of#7. What is the type and function of neurons along this tract?
  • (1) Mildred has a tumor in her brain, poor woman. She read her neurologist’s diagnostic report, which indicated the (orange) tumor was located in the ____. [Highlight the correct answer below]
    • Right ventromedial prefrontal cortex
    • Right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex
    • Right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
    • Right mediolateral prefrontal cortex
  • (1) The anatomical direction of the orange circle is located closest to ____ (hint: where we plan our movements) [Highlight the correct answer below]
    • Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
    • Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
    • Anteriolateral prefrontal cortex
    • Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex
  1. (1) The entire region indicated on the Supplemental Sheet is the  ____.
    1. Basal Ganglia
    1. Motor Cortex
    1. Somatosensory Cortex
    1. Motor Circuit
  1. (1) Which of the following describes the functions of #11 on the Supplementary Sheet?
    1. Anita loves to watch the cockroach races
    1. Lynn likes to hear herself talk
    1. Myra enjoys the taste of margaritas on Tuesdays
    1. Vance hates the feeling of cold floors on bare feet
  1. (3) [short answer] Which region of Central Nervous System (CNS) develops first? Make sure you describe where it is and why it develops before other regions of the CNS?
  1. (5) [short essay] Describe the Blood Brain Barrier. Include: (a) what it is made of (b) where it is located (c) how does it protect the brain (d) how does it care for neurons.  
  1. (9) [short essay] Describe the purposes of Cerebrospinal Fluid, especially during sleep. Be sure to include information from the video on Blackboard, and what diseases may arise if an individual remains sleep deprived?
  1.  (9) [short essay] Jorge was feeling exhausted during a live online lecture.  Just as Jorge was about to drop off to sleep, the professor called on him. Upon hearing his own name, Jorge felt a jolt of noradrenalin as he swiveled his eyes back toward the computer screen. How embarrassing! Describe the involvement of the reticular formation, reticular activating system, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, thalamus, and brain regions involved in hearing his name (including conscious awareness).
  1. (3) [short answer] Dopamine is produced in which two regions? Where are these regions located?
  1. (3) [short answer] Which brain structure produces serotonin? Where is this structure located?
  1. (5) [Short answer] Take a moment to look at your left hand on the keyboard. Notice whether your ring finger is the same size as your middle finger. As the light enters your eyes, the visual information must first go to the (a) to identify which sensory input it is (e.g., visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory) and then the visual information is sent to the (b) lobes. You recognize your fingers because the information has gone through the (c), and you know your fingers are to the left of you because the (d) interprets special orientation. Finally, the visual information goes to your (e), which permits you to consciously see your fingers.






  1. (3) [short answer] What are the functions of the amygdala?
  • (3) [short answer] What are the functions of the hippocampus?
  • (3) [short answer] What are the functions of the nucleus accumbens?
  • (5) [short essay] How do the anterior cingulate gyrus and frontal lobes work together? Include how much information the frontal lobes can process (consciously).
  • (5) [short essay] What is the somatosensory homunculus? Give an example
  • (9) [short essay] While preparing a meal for your date, you accidentally touch the hot stove. You pull your hand away before the pain registers and you howl “&*%$!!!” in agony. Fortunately, your date was a sailor, so there you got a second date. Describe the pathways involved in your (a) reflex (b) pain pathway. Don’t forget to include what happens to neurons when the stimulus is intense.

(4) Extra Credit

What have you learned in this section that I have not asked you? Don’t give me a list. One or two thorough answers will earn you full credit… but there are no freebies.