Goodman and Goodman Article Review Assignment Help

We read an article by Goodman and Goodman that argued that learning to read is natural. Briefly describe what they mean by this statement.
b. We read another article by Gough and Hillinger that argued that learning to read is unnatural. Briefly describe what they mean by this statement.
c. What are the consequences for instruction if you say that learning to read is natural? (i.e. what needs to be taught?)
d. What are the consequences for instruction if you say that learning to read is unnatural? (i.e. what needs to be taught?)
e. Why is learning to read difficult? In answering this question I would like for you to address why it is hard to identify speech sounds and how this impacts learning to read.
Question 2
a. What is necessary for normally developing children to learn how to speak? Answer in 1-2 sentences.
b. What is necessary for normally developing children to learn how to read? Answer in 1-2 sentences.
c. What is the alphabetic principle? Answer in 1-2 sentences.
d. We discussed 5 stages of reading development in class. Briefly describe the 5 stages with an emphasis on the changes that are seen in decoding ability.
e. How do changes in decoding ability relate to the level of fluency with which a child can read?
Everyone must answer the following 4 questions.
Question 3
a. Provide a brief definition of each of the following three terms: Phonological awareness, phonological sensitivity, and phonemic awareness.
b. What evidence suggests that the development of phonological sensitivity comes before phonemic awareness? Briefly describe a study that we discussed in class, making sure to include the methods that were used and a brief description of the results in answering this question.
c. Is there a relationship between phonological sensitivity and reading? Briefly explain your answer.
d. Does the importance of phonological awareness in relation to reading decrease over time? Make sure to justify your answer using information we have discussed in class.
Question 4
We have discussed the role of fluency in reading ability.
a. Briefly define fluency as it applies to reading.
b. We discussed the relationship between fluency and comprehension. Describe the evidence that supports this relationship.
c. Why is there a relationship between fluency and comprehension? Explain your answer making reference to attention and automaticity theory.
d. Some definitions of fluency include proper prosody as an important component of the definition. Why might proper prosody reflect fluent reading?
e. The relationship between fluency and comprehension has been described as bidirectional, meaning that fluency influences comprehension, and comprehension influences fluency. What is a possible reason why comprehension would affect fluency?
Question 5
You have been told that you need to design a phonemic awareness training program (because it is well known phonemic awareness training helps children learn to read). Based on empirical evidence that we have discussed/read about in class answer the following questions:
a. What is phonemic awareness?
b. What sorts of tasks should be included in your training program (i.e. how do you teach phonemic awareness)?
c. In order to optimize your program (make it as effective as possible) what are 3 important characteristics of phonemic awareness instruction?
d. Are there some children who might benefit more or less from your instruction? Briefly give 2 examples.
e. Why is phonemic awareness instruction so important? (i.e. what are kids learning with phonemic awareness that helps them with reading?)
Question 6
a. There is a gap between good and poor readers in terms of vocabulary (number of words that they know). What is one explanation, discussed in class, for the vocabulary gap between good and poor readers?
b. What is the difference between vocabulary breadth and vocabulary depth?
We know that poor readers also differ from good readers in terms of decoding, fluency, and comprehension.
c. How might vocabulary (breadth and/or depth) be related to decoding?
d. How might vocabulary (breadth and/or depth) be related to fluency?
e. How might vocabulary (breadth and/or depth) be related to comprehension?
f. Given your answers to c, d, and e, why is it important to begin vocabulary training before children are learning to read?
Learning involves a progressive realization of concepts. Understanding the basic elements in psychology helps develop a precise and important norm of knowledge acquisition. Training beginners like children how to read takes different actors into account.
The statement that learning to read is natural implies the automatic experience when exposed to society linguistic values. Children advance in knowing a language as part of the normal community interaction factor. Humans need interaction and communication for survival hence exploring learning to read in a natural concept.
In the contrast of learning to read as natural, Gough and Hillinger explain the incomplete learning in a six-year-old elementary level child that requires refinement measures. The aspects of learning to read as unnatural relate to the purpose of sending children to elementary school for reading assistance and practice. Under normal circumstance children will adopt vowel and consonant recognition without the ability to read words.
In the case of the natural way of reading, instructions teach children how to listen. The attributes of literacy acquisition continue as they learn how to pay attention and respond to new lessons. Passing instructions stimulates concentration which builds knowledge.
In unnatural learning to read instructions are meant to extend reading into word knowledge a step of ability to select words and match with drawings. Further instructions develop word discrimination skills and later can read a sentence then later a passage.
Learning to read comprises of advanced interaction with a language. The extension from speech to reading explores a concept which in part of cognitive capabilities requires matching recognized words with the right pronunciation not earlier realized.
a. Children learn to speak through interaction with other people. Recognition of certain sounds enables speech development resulting in the ability to speak on their own.
b. Learning to read begins with word recognition and speech development. In that stage, children can connect recognized words with oral skills for reading ability.
c. The alphabetic principle involves the understanding of words as a composition of letters that utilize various associations to result in specified pronunciation.
d. The stages of reading consist of :
-emergent pre-reader where a child learns the first step of the word, sound, images, and concepts within six months to six years.
-novice reader where a child learns the relationship between letters and sounds
-decoding reader in a third stage where children learn to read familiar stories with fluency
-the comprehending reader is a stage where the reader can acquire knowledge and ideas better from a passage
-the expert reader explores a fifth stage where one is able to extract meaning from different complex materials with ease
Decoding ability enables a child to match words with pronunciation which develops the art of reading more fluent.
Phonological awareness involves word form identification constituting of sound structure elements
Phonological sensitivity involves the ability to identify word form meaning and pronunciation in varying contexts
Phonemic awareness constitutes the ability to concentrate and influence certain personal pronunciation sounds
Since phonological sensitivity comprises of both phonological awareness and phonemic awareness, it is obvious that a child will first master word form structure and focus on how to manipulate pronunciation before deriving meaning at different contexts. An example involves tracking early literacy difficulties among children between two to five years where some learn and understand language values with ease while others struggle.
Phonological sensitivity links with reading in the sense that reading begins by word recognition and in phonological skills decoding and structure knowledge play key roles in a child’s development cycle.
Phonological awareness importance does not decrease with years since sound matching plays a crucial purpose in fluent speaking and reading at higher learning and reading stages.

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