Human Rights in France and Haiti

QUESTION
1. please use simple vocabulary
2. Only use the resource i provide. NO OUTSIDE RESOURCES.
3. Read the Prompt carefully
4. The essay format with short introduction,body and short conclusion
5. When paraphrasing, cite author and page number. No need for a work-cited page.
Here are the links of the extra resources:
http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/d/297/
http://www.hrweb.org/legal/udhr.html
ANSWER
Introduction
Debates on human rights have always brought up two main schools in the discourse. This is the Universalist school and the cultural relativist school. European countries have generally been known to be the Universalist proponents while other nations have been largely identified with the cultural relativism. This essay takes a keen examination of France and Haiti as regards human rights.
Haiti is by and large a Universalist states in terms of how it approaches the issues of human rights. What this means is that in Haiti, it is the group that is given priority over the individual, i.e. the group, in this case, entails members of the society. Thus, these members are treated in a superior way as compared to one person as an individual (Robinson pg 561). The reason for this as encapsulated in the Declaration is that Haiti is by and large not a European country. Thus the cultural construction is set in such a way that the people of a community are regarded very highly and treated in a better way as compared to when a person is all alone.
The other aspect that makes Haiti’s approach to human rights something that is of the Universalist school, is the aspect of modernity. Haiti is not a modern country if you compare it with a country like France, where the levels of civilization are very much higher. In Haiti, men are still revered and generally feared as compared to how women are treated. This social construction is part and parcel of their culture (Robinson pg 560). Hence their approach cannot border the one used by France. France is not a young democracy that is still struggling with things like women rights as the case is in Haiti. Further, the aspect of modernity and the mere fact that France is a European country plays a fundamental role in illustrating how different the concept of human rights is in Haiti and in France.
The Universalist approach as per those who have supported it has been held to be the standard of human rights across the world. In fact, it is the Universalist approach that led to the formation of the main law in international law concerning the rights of humans. This is a law that embraced from the Western states and critiques have argued that the western powers did not factor in the diverse culture that exists between the countries of the world when formulating human rights (Ignatieff pg 305). France’s approach is totally different in so many ways. First, in France, rights of any human being are treated as rights that are interconnected and there is no right that is held to be superior to the other. In many cultures, and this is also incorporating Haiti as a country that has stuck to the idea of culture, there are certain rights that are of more importance and others that are not important as such, even as much as they may at the end of the day be recognized as part of rights.
Apart from the interconnection of the rights, there is the concept of the individual. The individual is placed before the society in the France Declaration. This is the inverse of the approach by Haiti (Giles pg 316). Placing an individual before society means that the violation of the rights of a single person is something that is important and it must not be a violation of the whole group rights’ so as to be important.
Conclusion
The essay has simply tried to give a broad but indeed a true account of what the situation of human rights is in France and Haiti generally.

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