“Answer any one of the following essay questions.
1. What were the major ways in which Hafiz al-Assad and Saddam Husayn differed?
2. What have been the causes of the hostility between Iran and the United States?
3. What were the reasons for the rise of Sacred Terror? What are its major characteristics? Provide examples that illustrate these characteristics.
4. What were the reasons for the Arab Spring? Where did foreign intervention play an important in the outcomes?
5. What strategies and tactics has the United States relied on in the war against terrorism?
6. Explain the role of any three of the following in the Arab-Israeli conflict: the PLO, the Six-Day War, the First Intifada, the Oslo I Accord, or the Second Intifada.