“Discuss  the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) and discuss its challenge to the all-white Mississippi delegation at the 1964 convention. How did their efforts advance universal freedom for African American and political party participation?

Trace historically Black people involvement in the U.S. party system (identify their primary party affiliations) from enslavement to 2020.  Why is it argued that for most of African American history the U.S. party system has been a one- party system?

Explain the concept of de-racialization as the campaign strategy of African Americans running for office in majority white places. What do you see as the implication(s) for universal freedom?