QUESTION

For this assignment, select the strategies you would utilize with students qualifying under the law. Collect information on when, where, and how the strategies can be utilized. Prepare a chart to organize and detail your information for use with the final assignment.

Example: Identify a specific disability to address. In the chart, provide specific information on each of the strategy instruction approaches below. Use the list below for the columns in your chart. Provide specific examples of how the following strategies could be implemented when working with students who have the disability you selected.

Introduction to Strategy Instruction (SIM)
Types of Strategy Curriculum
Methods of Content Enhancement
Types Embedded Strategy Instruction
Explicit Strategy Instruction Procedures
SODA Strategy (for Asperger Syndrome)
Strategy Instruction for Second Language Learners (CALLA)
Write a narrative describing the decisions made addressing the seven areas listed above in your chart.

Length: 5-7 pages not including title and reference pages

References: Minimum of 3-5 scholarly resources

Books and Resources:

Including Students with Special Needs: A Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers
External Learning Tool
Task: View this topic
Friend, M. P., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers (7th ed.) Upper saddle River, NJ Pearson Education.

Read Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9

Montague, M., & Dietz, S. (2009). Evaluating the evidence base for cognitive strategy instruction and mathematical problem solving.

ANSWER

Students are required to master several subjects taught in school, which at times is tedious. Teachers try to device various ways in which learners can easily comprehend information taught in class. The teachers have found that establishing a close relationship with the students ensures they fully know the strengths and weaknesses of each learner. In a classroom, there is a great possibility of finding students with special needs requiring special attention (Friend & Bursuck, 2012). The rate of grasping and understanding differs from one student to another. A need for establishing different strategies for students improves the learning capabilities of those learners. The student learning disabilities range from blindness, autism, handicapped and low levels of intelligence quotient. The below paper will document the utilization of various strategies such as strategy instruction and how these strategies are applicable to students with disabilities. Finally, under each strategy, a narration decision will be highlighted.

The following is a chart table summary documenting examples of identifying learning disabilities under each strategy:

Introduction to strategy instruction (SIM)

 

Types of strategy curriculum

 

Methods of content enhancement

 

Types of embedded strategy instruction

 

Explicit strategy instruction procedures

 

SODA strategy (for Asperger Syndrome)

 

Strategy Instruction for second language learners (CALLA)

 

There exist various SIM reading strategies which entail: paraphrasing of reading material content into a person own wordings, reading a story and posing self-questions, creating images in the mind through observation skills and finally understanding new words. An example of a student with a learning disability is one with low levels of intellectual abilities. In this case, the student is taught pronouncing some of the English words through a breakdown process of prefixes and suffixes. The following are the steps which the teacher can use in helping the above-described student to improve on his/her intelligence:

The teacher helps the student to come up with unknown words by reading sentences

The student should try pronouncing the word by isolating the prefix letters

The last pronounceable letters should also be isolated

The stem of the word should be on its own

The stem is examined and then pronounced by the student

The student practices and then checks with the teacher if the pronunciation is correct

Finally, the student has the chance of confirming with the dictionary of the word definition

 

Taking an example of a student suffering from auditory processing type of learning disorder, this learner has problems of interpreting different sounds. Using the curriculum strategy, the student can be assisted in designing a visually based curriculum where various angles of visuals are introduced to assist him/her clearly memorize the events to further detect sound differences by observing things.

 

According to Montague & Dietz (2009), student mathematical abilities are evaluated depending on how he/she can solve math problems using different approaches and methods. The facilitator acts as the link between the content and the learners. An example of a student with dyscalculia has problems with counting numbers. In this case, the teacher can use items such as toys, fruits, and his/her fingers to assist count, which will later create a reminding picture for the learner to apply.

 

Kauffman et al. (2018) appreciated the need of having special education teaching in the curriculum because some of the students require special attention more than the others. Taking a Dyslexia student, a teacher can come up with embedded strategies such as narration techniques like funny quotes or tell the student to read paragraphs of a story then pose questions, which require him or her to answer. This creates an engaging conversation with the learner to improve on reading skills.

 

The main focus is on identifying the weaknesses of a student and designing specific strategies for mitigating the problem for the learner to easily learn. A student with dysgraphia, has an issue of handwriting skills. The first step is for the teacher to model and demonstrate to the student on the exact writing to write. Secondly, the tutors will create a guide for writing, which the student will follow. Thirdly, the student is left to continuously try and practice whatever learned from modeling and demonstration.

 

Howard (2015) suggested that effective tutors teaching special needs children must constantly devise ways of making the learner comfortable to understand and remember some of the taught content and skills. Social interaction among students is critical because it helps in the brain development of that student. The best strategy for solving problems with Asperger Syndrome is assisting the child or the individual to unlearn the less interactive skill by reinforcing interaction skill with fellow students that ensures he/she forgets on the old habits of loneliness.

 

Students with language, memory deficit problem have difficulties in knowing some of the languages such as English. To independently train the students, the teacher should concentrate on certain information crucial for the student to know in that language. Secondly, demonstrate to the students by using visual pictures or videos. Thirdly, ensure the students practice the new strategies put across. The teacher provides the learner with checklists on how to monitor progress. Lastly, the student has a chance of applying content learned in other learning classes.

Narrations:

Introduction to strategy instruction (SIM)

The above strategy highlights the need for students to read and understand large volumes of content that is complex in nature. After comprehending, the students should be in a position to express learned content in the form of writing. Effectively jotting down the complex information requires summarization abilities. The model is mostly used with adolescent students. The approach taken by the model is that of comprehensive coverage for the student to possibly express lots of data in a simplified manner. The work of teachers is to facilitate the smooth learning process of students. In the above case, the teacher comes up with tools to help the learner solve some problems, which later the student does further research to enhance what the teacher provided. In due time, the tools will eventually reduce the level of control by the teachers, which is transferred to the students. The learners will now have a strategic instruction that will guide in doing in-depth research. Under the strategy instruction, the strategies or tools are divided into skills such as data extraction, cleaning, storing and retrieving by demonstrating high levels of competence. The literacy work is broad-based and requires lots of integration among the learners and teachers. The SIM strategies are integrated with other changes set in learning institutions through a framework of CLC (Content Literacy Continuum). Most of the literacy work is taught in high schools to provide the students with an approach that is easy for them to attain good standards of learning and pass their exams. Infrastructural development, such as the purchase of reading materials, co-curriculum activities, facilitators, and support systems of the schools are essential for the successful learning of the student.

Types of strategy curriculum

The strategy curriculum differs from one institution to another, depending on the type of teachers facilitating education in those schools. Additionally, the curriculum is designed in such a manner that favors various students depending on their learning capabilities. The curriculum for special needs students is totally different from normal students. The learning disability students are taught a bit differently by the teacher focusing more on skills that are essential in completing a task. Students having a problem with theoretical works, especially, the disabled are taught skills oriented towards solving problems, both in an academic and non-academic way. The main purpose of the curriculum strategy is to guide both the learner and student towards a certain path of solving issues like mathematical problems.

Methods of content enhancement

The above type of method is used in organizing content in an understandable and easy way for the learner to quickly grasp. The method utilizes some of the powerful and effective ways through which the learner content is organized in a simplified way. In the process of enhancing content, the teacher will identify the most critical part of the content and then, devices collaborative and demonstrative ways of engaging students to fully understand the information. Essentially, the content must not be neutralized by the teaching methods. The original intended purpose of the content is continuously maintained by using effective methods to enhance its understandability. The method is effectively applied to slow learner students and students with learning disabilities. The above strategy is applied in helping the students think in a critical manner to facilitate problem-solving skills.

Types of embedded strategy instruction

The embedded instructions are used to enhance child engagement in terms of learning daily routine activities. The natural activities are identified, then procedures are laid down on how the child’s learning capabilities should be improved. The child needs are identified in regard to the changing daily routines. The child is provided with a challenging and learning environment to practice own skills in a direct manner that results in benefiting the student. The embedded instructions are organized in different forms such as prioritizing on what the learner should be taught, the best time to teach like daily routines, using trial and error method and evaluating the progress of the student

Explicit strategy instruction procedures

The above strategies only focus on certain skills and procedures. The isolated information is fished out of the reading materials and students engaged in knowing that information for purposes of specialization. The strategy mostly applies to a student having learning disabilities to understand calculation skills, reading skills, and writing skills. A specific skill is first identified, then procedures and sequences put in place to effectively teach the students that type of skill. The teacher takes three steps in teaching students under the explicit strategy. First, the teachers prepare lesson plans. Secondly, the teacher sets interaction strategies with the learners, and finally consolidate the skills taught in school.

SODA strategy (for Asperger Syndrome)

The Asperger Syndrome effect is due to the deficit interaction skills of a person. The Syndrome makes an individual feel isolated and frustrated in life. The SODA strategy is meant to improve on the social interaction behaviors of people. The visual method of teaching is introduced among the leaners with the disability of Asperger Syndrome to try and teach them how to interact with fellow students. The teachers’ documents one step at a time for the learner to comprehend. Some of the individual behaviors must be unlearned first for the social interaction skills to be reinforced. The process requires lots of patience and tolerance to the learner as there is a likelihood of mood swings occurring.

Strategy Instruction for second language learners (CALLA)

The main aim of CALLA is equipping students with knowledge and skills to think independently by reflecting critically on what they have learned. Additionally, the students have the chance of evaluating some of the learning content grasped in class. At the end of the CALLA strategy lesson, the student should have mastered the various strategies taught in the classroom by the teachers. By understanding, the learners will command the strategies through application in the different subjects offered in school. The advantage of CALLA is that it can be used in different languages such as foreign languages or other general lessons in school.

 

References

Friend, M. P., & Bursuck, W. D. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers (7th Ed.). Upper saddle River, NJ Pearson Education.

Howard, L. A. (2015). The effective special education teacher: A practical guide for success. Waveland Press.

Kauffman, J. M., Hallahan, D. P., Pullen, P. C., &Badar, J. (2018). Special education: What it is and why we need it (2nd Ed.). New York: Routledge.

Montague, M., & Dietz, S. (2009). Evaluating the evidence base for cognitive strategy instruction and mathematical problem solving. Exceptional Children75(3),