This study explores the effect of cognitive processing of visual information. It will address the effect of specific aspects within the musical structure and how it is likely to affect the interpretation of visual scenarios.
The study experiment tool will explore various ways in which visual art shape semantic processing visual contexts, and evaluate how the processes may be evaluated in the empirical setting. The design used a variety of possible variables that incorporate potential variables in visual stimuli for experimental purposes.
The study studied the measure of subjective memory, objective memory, arousal, and temporal memory of participants after viewing films without music, with low-quality music, and with high-quality music. Participants were required to answer a short questionnaire about demographics and what they remember after watching the film. The questionnaire tested the levels of;
Methods of Data Collection
The study used a 2x2x3 mixed factorial experiment method. All participants were given several video clips to watch and the final positive and negative effect tested. In one group, the mood of participants was tested given the soundtrack congruent with that of the film outcome. The second group on the other hand were introduced to a film alone, music alone and a film with music to test between-variables. 72 participants were university students that had been introduced into psychology coarse credit while 12 were randomly selected to participate in between-subjects conditions.
During the presentation phase, the materials used as filming clips were the same materials used by Boltz, (2004). They had been extracted from several television programs with feature-length films. The films consisted of 20 clips, each approximately 3-4 minutes long. Each clip presented an overall context of a story episode text of a story in that it had a clear opening and closing. The ends of the films were not predictable but were either negative or positive in their overall effect. Each film had a dialogue between characters but did not have background music in its original version.
A combination of musical instruments consisting of 47 tunes was recorded in the television programs as the film clips. The instruments were 20 to 30 seconds with equal amplitude and performed by a single instrument without any kind of lyrics. Half of the tunes showed positive effect properties and were performed with a positive effect major mode, rapid tempo, and minor mode of changes in pitches while the other half was associated with the negative effect such as slow tempo, minor mode, and few changes in pitches.
A set of protests were asked to assess the relative effect of memorability and a degree of familiarity with these selections. One group of respondents (10 participants) view 20 clips and then asked to indicate for each with a 7-point scale on whether they seemed familiar. The respondents were asked to rate the effectiveness of the outcomes from the film on a set of 112 bipolar objectives using 11-Likert scales. The study used an analogous procedure to set the musical selections that were separated with 10 participants evaluated by 47 tunes on a similar dimension.
The pretest results were used to develop experimental stimuli. 8 clips of the 20 were discarded due to their familiarity and or high or low ratings memorability. The remaining 12 clips were represented as a subset of the originally used videos. The same estimation process was used at the beginning of the musical selection, to sum up to a total of 24 tunes, 12 of them as presentation phase while 12 as distractors for the tune recognition task.
The stimulating materials for this study are three versions (A, B, and C): three film clips of different music on the same picture. According to the research question, hypothesis, the stimulation materials are mood-incongruent music (happy), mood-incongruent music (sad), and mood-congruent music.
The original soundtrack version number is A. The soundtrack in the film clip is Gioachino Rossini’s opera The Barber of Seville, which has proven to be one of the greatest masterpieces of comedy within the music. This is regarded as happy mood-incongruence music.
The second film clip (B), the music is Lascia ch’io pianga, from the opera Rinaldo of composer George Frideric Handel, which is an Italian-language soprano aria. This music has been experimentally confirmed as “sad” classical music (Marko, 2018). Therefore, this music will be used as sad mood-incongruent music.
The third music (C) is Catacombs by Tyler Bates. This music is the soundtrack of the shooting scene in the action film John Wick 2 released in 2017. The film scene is similar to the original film scene. This music was selected as the mood-congruent in experimental to prove that the use of mood-congruent (modern music) and mood-incongruent (classical music) in similar film scenes brings different psychological experiences to the participants, which will make the participants have different speculations about the subsequent plot of the film.
After the participants participated in the test, consent was obtained from all the participants (up to four in all the sessions) where the researcher gave a brief overview of what the test will entail. After the requirements were understood, the researcher played the film with the corresponding conditions to which specific conditions of the participants had been assigned to. After the film was complete, the participants were given their questionnaires and encouraged to clarify themselves if need be. Due to unwanted priming, the tasks were intentionally unbalanced. This would affect the priming of variable ordering.
The questionnaires were collected after the participants had completed them. They were also notified of the end of the testing. They were thanked, debriefed, and incentives given out to compensate for their time. All the sessions lasted for not more than one hour and concluded by the main investigator.
The experiment used a total of 80 participants. The questionnaire required participants to give basic information to classify them into different demography. The classification helped the research to identify the kind of participants were used. Demographics were classified into age, gender, and level of education. Data will be analyzed using inferential statistics methods. In this study, ANOVA will be appropriate to help verify the systemic variances. The demographic variables such as age, gender, and education did not affect the mood of participants.
Music surrounds us. Music gadgets have been integrated into almost every place, in the car, grocery stores, restaurants, at home, religious services; we hear music. Appropriate or not, we can for certain say that music will remain to be part of us for a long time. Satellite radios provide us with more options for choices of what we can listen to. Innovation has also increased the intake of music. Portable devices such as smartphones iPods and tablets now allow us to carry music anywhere we go. The music industry is also booming every day (Boltz, 2004).
Film theories have also recognized the role of music within the movie-viewing experience (Romiti, 2008). Past studies however have found that music does not have a significant influence of interpretation, remembrance, and perception of film information. There is still need more research on whether music is jointly encoded into the cognitive system when an individual is watching a movie.
This chapter covers the analysis of the data collected. It is divided into research response, information presentation, and presentation of analysis performed and the link between methods of stimulus used. This chapter implemented different statistical methods to show relationships. Models such as ANOVA and T-test were appropriate.
Demographics information of Respondents
To have a clear understanding of respondents that participated in the study, the research had to establish their demographic information. Demographics were assessed in terms of gender, level of education, and experience.
By the end of the final measure, respondents were asked to complete a brief series of questions about their familiarity with the study subject. Participants were mainly students, they were asked whether or not they have heard the presented music during the experiment. They were also asked about whether they had ever watched the films presented in the testing session. The questions asked included to eliminate any potential cofounds before the exposure to the media, to reduce any impact of participant’s memory performance. Additionally, respondents were asked whether or not they continuously tried to remember any film aspects during the testing period. Other questions included their ages, gender, and professional qualification.
The first demographic category was gender distribution. The findings were represented in figure 1 below. The chart shows that 60 percent of respondents were male while 40 percent were female. Therefore, the research was represented by both gender and thus reliable information was sought. The second aspect was demographics in terms of the highest level of education of respondents.
Figure 1: Gender Demographics
In a study conducted by Michalos, (2017), happiness is a broad concept with a cognitive and emotional component. It is made of several factors that influence the mood at a particular time. However, there is no direct relationship between the level of education. Positive emotions are classified into concepts such as joy, satisfaction, and pleasure. Table 1 shows that respondents that participated in the study were at different levels of undergraduates, postgraduates, and Ph.D. 47% of the respondents had an undergraduate level of education, 44.7% were postgraduates while only 7.1% of the respondents were Ph.D. holders. This population shows that the respondents were able to read and understand the questionnaire by themselves.
What is your highest degree?
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Undergraduate 40 47.1 47.6 47.6
Postgraduate 38 44.7 45.2 92.9
Phd 6 7.1 7.1 100.0
Total 84 98.8 100.0
Missing System 1 1.2
Total 85 100.0
Table 1: The highest level of education
Change in Mood
Participants participated in the study by being subjected to film with music on the background while others with just visuals. This ensured that their moods or change of mood was not interfered by the researcher. Participants listened to music for a period of 10- 20 minutes (SD =4.32) ranging from 63-227.56 seconds. The variables were mainly distributed : D(48)=.091, p<0.05. ANOVA analysis conducted on the four conditions showed no significant difference in the means of music piece duration across the four groups. Participants reported what they experienced not on the screen and their responses from the measures. Out of all 41 emotions in the questionnaire, only 19 were collectively determined to be ‘hits’. Similarly, the remaining 22 were determined to be ‘false alarm that allowed correct computation of a corrected recognition score. The percentage score of the false alarm was calculated by the formula (x/22) then subtracted from the achieved percent of hits using the formula (x/19). Since the dependent variable was not evenly distributed, parametric testing was not allowed. For a combination of subject design, there is not specifically affected non-parametric alternative option available. Due to the unavailability of missing pretest mood scores, one case was removed. The mood was constructed within the change in mood variable (subject variable), which was replaced by the relative and absolute variable score of mood change. The absolute score was obtained by deducting the protest score with the posttest score, to measure the number of items. The pretest percentage was calculated to measure the relative difference. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (k-S) test for absolute score results was derived as D(47)=0.130, P=0.46, suggesting that the assumption of normality was violated. However, the parametric tests used in the variable had a robust attribute and the deviation from the normality is considered marginal; evidence of 0.46. The relative difference for the K-S test was very significant D(24)=0.226, p=0.01, thus, the analysis used a nonparametric test variable. A two-way ANOVA analysis conducted was used to analyses the change in mood in different groups using the absolute difference score variable. All the data were analyzed by a repeated and univariate measure ANOVA with music conditions as the dependent variable and (A, B, or C) as an independent variable. All the independent variables tested measures such as arousal, subjective, emotional memory, memory, and temporal memory. The exemption in this analysis was that a notable trend was found in the three conditions existing between participant's scores and the measures of objective and subjective memory. The data were subsequently analyzed using bivariate correlation methods. All the tests were done using SPSS software and all comparisons between-groups reported bellow-using multi-measures. Arousal This was the first instance tested after viewing the film. The questionnaire tested the rate of arousal using 24 emotion words such as lively, dull, fatigued, vigorous, depressed, and worn-out. Participants were asked to rate how much they felt at every mention of the words at the current time on a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 represents the lowest emotions and 5 as extreme. Since the words used were polarized (indicating the level of arousal), some were reversed-scored. All participants achieved a maximum score of 120, converted by the formula (x/120). The descriptive analysis of the arousal task showed a significant difference between the three groups of arousal measures (F=0.876, p=0.423). However, the three measures of perceived arousal of the numerical trend of the three musical tracks. There was low arousal of moods in condition A(with no music), followed by condition B( music with low-quality audio) and C Subjective Memory Participants were later required to present a modified version of the Memory Characteristic questionnaire. The questionnaire was modified to be used in the film experiment. It only went through minor changes such as changing the term ‘event’ to film within the question context. In line with the original incarnation MCQ, this questionnaire was aimed at assessing the personal memory of participants after watching the fil, using a linear scale of 1 to 7. The question was based on a specific question in each criterion. An example of the assessments includes “ My memory for the film: involved visual details, 1 representing a little or none and 7 representing a lot. Questions that could not relate to this research were omitted. Lastly, participants were converted to a percentage score based on the highest MCQ score and inter-measure comparison. The behavior was estimated using descriptive analysis conducted. The difference between the three groups used to test subjective memory showed a high statistical significance where the F was 0.89 and p of 0.413. On assessing the subjective memory for the showed clips, participants in condition B (music with low-quality audio music) recorded the highest mean memory score compared to the three groups. Participants with condition A (no music) scored highest in this activity while those in group C reported the lowest rating in the subjective memory test. Group B only recorded at an extreme that is, the group’s performance was in between that of A and C. despite the non-significance performance findings, the resulting uniqueness was within the context other four. Objective Memory This measure was determined from the demand for evaluation of participants for objective aspects of the clip specifically, special and visual components. Respondents were asked 30 questions with relative visual memory characteristics for instance the question, “what was the priest holding when he delivered the blessing?” to questions such as “The shield of the ____ side were rectangular”. One mark was awarded for each correct answer by the participant, then converted to a possible score of 30. The analysis conducted on objective memory showed that the study was not statistically significant with an F of 0.534 and a p of 0.589, however, the results were revealing. While considering certain visual and spatial aspects of the film content, respondents showed the same patterns to the emotional memory score. Group A had the highest, followed by B and C respectively. The emotional memory alignment implies that the presence of music is likely to have a two-pronged, reducing effect on the recollection of participants on certain visual details and emotional aspects conveyed on the screen. Emotional Memory The questionnaire also tested the memory of the emotions of participants. It used 41 emotion words that will be used to test participants’ reactions towards the films they watched. The words used included fear, hate, terror, panic among others. The researcher felt that the question was important since it would distinguish between what they experienced and the emotions they felt. The research assed the emotions conveyed on-screen, by validating participant’s initial responses. Emotional memory was analyzed using descriptive analysis. The results showed that there was a difference between A, B, and C. However, the results were not statistically significant. The F was 0.691 while p was 0.506; however, a clear pattern was evident were participants in group A had the highest score on average, the B and C respectively. Participants were ranked in terms of percentage where groups A had the highest followed by B and C respectively. By calculating the false alarms from the score, the response bias was achieved. Thus, the overall quality of music was increased in the order of A, B, and C. participants had increased the difficulty levels in accurately identifying emotions presented in the clips watched. Temporal Memory Even though the measure may be viewed as a small measure of the wider objective memory score. Some of the defining characteristics that lead to consideration of this task were to test the temporal memory. Participants were required to arrange eight film events in chronological order from 1 to 8, where 1 represents the first and 8 the last. All correctly ordered events were given marks allowing participants to get a maximum of 8 scores. The raw scores were converted into percentages to improve the inter-measure considered distinct from the given memory task. This specific measure should be considered distinct from the above mentioned objective memory task assessing participant's ability to memorize the film “gist”. While the questionnaire was to test the ability to remember specific visual details, the task required a more detailed understanding of memory of the film unit as a whole, therefore, in the part will be considered separately. While the temporal memory intergroup differences for temporal did not have a statistical significance, the results showed the highest significance of the five conditions. The temporal memory did not reflect a statistical significance of the five comparisons. The statistical significance was F=2.302 and P=0.110. For the last task of the study, the result showed a cross condition similar to the arousal ratings of participants. The musical instrument increased arousal rate in A, B, and C groups rating respectively. Participants stated that the corresponding benefits in their ability to place a series of clip’s major events in the right chronological order. Additionally, the arousal rating of temporal memory suggests that the two conditions were desperate measures that would reflect a common underlying mechanism. Main Analysis It is important to note that even though no preliminary analysis of variance yielded significant differences between the three groups, the existence of a variance pattern was observed between A and C groups. In some cases, if data obtained from the two groups were obtained; the same statistical tests to those employed above would show statistical distinctions. This is true especially for emotional memory where F was 1.370 and a p of 0.25, temporal memory with F of 4.228, p <0.047, and arousal with F 1.482 and p of 0.231, where the significance level would be reached if the analysis only included A and C. Apart from the single measure, analysis of intergroup differences shows much more compelling and meaningful results. However, this is from the primary analysis conducted. First, an almost significant interaction was found between the interaction between measures of temporal memory and objective memory, as shown in the analysis results (F= 3.002, p=0.058). This result shows that when musical quality is increased, the participant’s ability to order a series is increased. This indicates that films with high-quality audio increased individual memory by helping them order events in the film. Similarly, the quality of music in a film helped participants to cite visual and spatial (graphical) details about a film. The presence of the interaction suggests that diverging pathways for the resultant effect of the accompaniment of the existing video clip. Secondly, there was a significant interaction between temporal memory and emotional memory. This was evident in the result analysis of F=4.222 and p<0.02. The analysis showed that the level of music quality increased the mean score for emotions expressed in the video clips suffered. The background of the study provides theories in film-sound theory, the expressive study of sound film, musical tonality connotation, the implication of neuroscientific research on human emotions and music cognition. The empirical research will focus on tonal dissonance influences, using the invariant visual scene. The study result shows strong evidence of total dissonance level on emotional interpretation. In the meantime, temporal memory showed a corresponding elevation in music quality concerning memory enhancement. Thirdly, the measure of emotional and arousal memory was notable, however, not scientifically significant with an F of 2.106 and p of 0.132. The result indicates that the inverse relation between the reported level of arousal of participants after watching the films and their ability to identify emotions portrayed on the screen. Interestingly, there was a high arousal rate especially when the clip was felt, the more difficult the participant had in recognizing their emotions, the correctly they were able to express the characters in the film. Lastly, the analysis showed that some similarities in the mean response rates for two of the five measures i.e. subjective memory and objective memory. Even though one represented a completely subjective, scores generated from participants showed how well and the individual can memorize a film and its content. Another measure could be seen in the single task that has more control over. The analysis showed a very high significance correlation of p-value being <0.05 (0.004) and an r squire of 0.378. The participant’s scores on the objective memory questionnaire and memory characteristics questionnaires that show the responses of how respondents felt of their memory. While the findings were interesting in showing the compelling for further analysis of the results. On breaking down the correlations into groups, the highest contributor of the significant group was group C whose correlation results were r of 0.657 and a p-value of 0.004. this more than two times that of group B with r squire of 0.329 and p-value of 0.197 and more than six times of group A with r= 0.106 and p= 0.647. The analysis also used the fisher’s z value to determine whether the correlation had a significant correlation with each other. The analysis showed that Group A and B did not have a significant difference (Z Fisher’s = 1.56, p=0.12, two-tailed), group A and C had a statistical significance of Z fishers of 1.91 and p of 0.056, two-tailed. The correlation results show that participants subjected to films with high-quality music had uncanny ability to assess and report the quality of the memory of the film compared to other groups without music and those with poor quality music. ANOVA Sum of Squares df Mean Square F What do you think of the relationship between character A and character B? - Selected Choice Between Groups .661 4 .165 1.196 Within Groups 10.911 79 .138 Total 11.571 83 How familiar are you with the music? Between Groups 104.891 4 26.223 2.469 Within Groups 839.109 79 10.622 Total 944.000 83 Please indicate how well the following descriptors describe the reactions of the character B - Flushed Between Groups 9.411 4 2.353 1.158 Within Groups 160.541 79 2.032 Total 169.952 83 Please rate to what extent you think character B experienced the following emotions? Character B: - Distress Between Groups 11.198 4 2.800 1.395 Within Groups 158.552 79 2.007 Total 169.750 83 Please indicate how well the following descriptors describe the reactions of the character A - Lightheaded Between Groups 38.508 4 9.627 4.926 Within Groups 154.384 79 1.954 Total 192.893 83 Table 3: ANOVA Analysis Discussion This study examined the effect of background music on film. Participants were tested on how well they can remember certain parts or all the parts of the film under three conditions, without background music, with low-quality music on the background and high-quality music in the background. In the experiment, the film was designed to serve as a naturalistic setting that observes the interaction between music and events that are experienced every day. Several independent measures of the participant’s memory for the presented film were used to complete the picture of how music is integrated into the film. Other independent variables were personal, subjective memory, arousal, the memory of objective, the memory of emotions, visual details, and temporal memory. As hypothesized, manipulation of visual films with the integration of soundtracks showed a relationship between arousal and musical quality. Participants that watched films without music (Group A) reported the lowest levels of arousal. Participants that were subjected to watch films with low-quality audio (group B) showed a higher arousal rate. Group C participants showed a high rate of arousal levels. On a large scale, this can be interpreted as an overall emotional effect the clip subjected the participant to. The result shows that the existence and quality of music in films affect the emotional effect on the participant. The measure of emotional memory and objective memory however showed an opposite pattern. The soundtrack improved in the following order, A, B, and C respectively. The performance of the task increased as quality music improved. This indicates that there is a fundamental difference in how participants remember about emotional memory and objective memory, on the other side, temporal memory effects when music is presented along with a scene. Additionally, temporal memory included in the study may be interpreted as gist memory or the primary memory. By ordering the major events of the film’s actin, participants were forced to integrate all their memory from the film watched including the coherent whole. This way, temporal memory may be distinct from the larger scale of memory than any other, it also requires a different and fully developed memory for the film than that of other demand measures. The correlation analysis on the other hand shows that there is a striking relationship between subjective assessment of participants’ memory for the film and their actual observed memory performance. The extent to which the participants memorized the greatest within-group correlation of the three was that of Group C or other quality music group. Participants that were subject to high-quality music within the film showed exemplary high ability to predict their performance on a later objective memory measure and visual details in the film. Interestingly, Bravo, (2011) found out that memory arousal and negative information tend to be remembered in a more contextual detail than the neural information, this means that it limits the proneness to distortion. The findings in the study suggest that this type of negative arousal induced in Group C can only be enhanced and not only subjective vividness of memory. However, the study only used words rather than scenes of a cinema, the finding can be important in formulating an explanation of astounding accuracy of subjective memory testing as evident in group C of this study. This study, therefore, is aligned to the psychological argument that film music increases arousal rate thus inducing mood. The intricate aspects of composition or orchestration that are intentionally aligned with visual events presented in the film clip. The study showed that the existence of music in film has a distinct function. Therefore, the research has confirmed that Cohen’s theory has special attention to be made on the visual elements that are congruent with musical patterns appearing to the logical. The study therefore can confirm that certain visual features in a film can be remembered better than pattern related congruence. Order Custom Paper here
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Bravo, F. (2011). The influence of music on the emotional interpretation of visual contexts. Digital Repository, 20.
Michalos, A. C. (2017). Education, Happiness, and Wellbeing. Social Indicators Research, 3.
Romiti, J. S. (2008). Beyond Mood Congruence: Effects ofMusic on Memory in Film. Boston College, 4.